hello today we have our lecture professor from Nebraska University at Omaha Professor Robert Blair and we are very happy to have any professor with her as real it was two weeks of quite hard work with students with the officials of Public Administration institutions with our colleagues academic help people faculty from from our Institute with administrated ministration of university so really two weeks run very fast and today is the last day for a public lecture so I really we are very happy to introduce this topic when Professor wood will introduce us his research results research on public administration and especially within local governance level so it is our research interest as well so I hope that there will be questions and really quite productive scientific discussion so professor is floor is yours and I will be your listener so well well to begin I want I want to thank Shola University for the wonderful opportunity to spend two weeks here in Lithuania it's my third time two weeks has gone fast I really had an opportunity to visit with students spend time with students bachelor students master students and some PhD students so it was a very fun very fine and also I had a chance to visit with staff faculty we talked about some collaborative projects we've got a plan I think to continue doing work in this area and also I had a chance to visit with the ministry which was very interesting and I think productive so it was it's been uh it's been a very quick two weeks and I want to particularly thank Velma for her wonderful planning for this trip and and and Bill MA and I and my wife and her husband have got to be very good friends over the year so they'll really enjoy doing it well what I want to talk about today is some of the research that I'm doing and in particular the theoretical framework that I'm using in the research that I'm doing this past semester I just finished a teaching doctoral seminar and the theories of a big policy and I had eight students in my class and it had a very productive seminar in fact I'm still working on their papers the papers that the students will be doing will be submitted to journals or presented at conferences and then maybe I know there's a conference here in in November I will encourage students to think about that as a an outlet for their research I know that two of my colleagues will be coming here to Chile for the conference but enough about about that I wanna this is this is me this is for those of you and it's hard it's hard to see but actually I actually I have a my email and my website a personal website I gave a copy of this presentation to Velma and so people are interested in seeing some of this material and looking at it in more detail please contact Velma what I want to talk about is a specific theoretical framework that I have used in my research over the years and it's called the multiple streams model and and I have I have used that in a number of my research projects and I'll talk a little bit about this theoretical framework John kingdon is is the primary author of this framework it was is one of the seven theoretical frameworks that I included in my theory class and it's one that that I think has particular application to public administration research and I'll and I will explain that in in a bit more detail very soon it's been it's used widely around the world that it the second edition is is 1995 he actually did his research in 1984 and it's interesting about about kingdon who is a professor at at Harvard he did the research in in 84 and when it was introduced it was it just it just was dynamic and at his recent I guess you couldn't see me now you can see and when Kingdon introduced his research in in 1984 people were just astounded by the work he did and and received all sorts of recognition and people begged him to do an update of his research that he had conducted in 1984 and they kept asking and asking dr. King to please update this please update this finally he said okay I will do it in 1995 is the second edition there has been only where was only one change he added a chapter at the end from his original edition and he said I was right in 1984 and I'm still right in 1995 but this is this is this is a research so this is a very interesting model and I'll go through it very very quickly to talk about some of the key components of the theory itself it's it's a dynamic theory and it's really one that questions some of the traditional policy process model which is very much focused on step by step ways that policy is developed and Kingdom said no no it's not done step by step there's a lot of interactive a lot of interactive steps that take place at the same time so he really challenged a conventional thinking and how the policy process is is undertaken what's nice about the policy process is that it is global in nature that the way policy developed in America and in Lithuania and Norway and and another place around the world is very similar so there's a lot of application to the debt to his model in fact in my in my policy Theory class of my students in the class three of them were international students and and one of the things I challenge them to do is how can we take some of these theories and apply them to to your country I had a suit from Mexico on China and one from Korea and so they were able to adapt to smile and there's no reason why these kind of models could not be adapted here in in in Lithuania there are the the basics of this theory is that there are three independent streams and in these streams the the streams consist of the problem stream the policy stream and the political stream and and they are they are independently functioning they have separate sets of activities they don't interact but they have they have a tremendous impact on the way the policy is developed I'll I'll talk a little bit about about how that that plays out in a in a few seconds the problem stream is that is is the first stream and in this stream is is really consist of sort of the everyday set of activities that we experience and we read about there are always more problems to deal with and then we have the resources and and and time to address and so every day there's things come up and issues and and on the internet and cable TV and the newspapers that just everyday there's things that need to be addressed every day there is a different problem every day there's something that that needs to be it needs to be addressed and so what happens is that there's continual discussion continual debate and then this takes place with within this political stream I watched since I've been here I watch good morning Europe and every day there there's issues that bring up and discuss same sort of things in America and in other parts of the country that's the problem string those are the sort of things that we who have to deal so this is this is stream number one stream number stream number two is the one that we are interested in as public administration scholars because with it within the policy stream there are sets of actors or set of people who are policy experts and we interact on on a regular basis we look at policy we evaluate policy we test policy we discuss policy with within these within these forums within this policy stream as Kingdom Kingdom discusses it I actually have taken his concept of a policy stream and have adapted it to policy communities you know this is what what I will talk about it's a little more detailed sort of way that we look at the policy stream these policy streams are our communities are really very dynamic in nature they change as we would expect over time as we learn more about a policy area and we learn more about how to address things we we do measurements or engage in scientific research and we understand policy and so and so things things change over time King kingdon in history and this is where I differ a little bit and in Kingdom's theory and with it within the policy stream he assumes that the consensus is reached among the policy actors with it within the stream and then a an acceptable solution is is as promoted as part of the addressing the issues I differ with that I think within the policy stream or policy community there there it's a very competitive environment there's lots of different viewpoints lots of different ways that we look at policy and what's what's important I think to us as Public Administration scholars is that key people within this policy stream are public administrators if we are we are among the policy experts where among the people that have deep and scientific knowledge of a policy and we have significant impact on on how policy is is eventually developed and so administrators are pour'd people within the policy stream and as I discuss this with my colleagues with with my students and one of the things that a challenge that we have as researchers in public demonstration is trying to have an understanding what is the proper role of administrators in the policy process especially within a Democratic Society that's that's that's that's a big challenge that's something that I don't have the answers to but I think is something that we continually discuss and and and debate and in my opinion I think looking at policy the policy stream and policy communities is the best way for us public administrate administration scholars to to frame and understand and research the role of public administrators in the policy process if there's a if there's a message that I that I can give to people that's one that I would I would really emphasize this is really the way to understand their own their own administrators so okay the last stream is the political stream and then this is really the public mood this is this is sort of we have a problem we have we have a solution that takes place within the policy stream and what happens often is that the problem stream and the policy stream will merge because we have an answer to it to a problem but often those are all those are minor problems but if we want to deal with big issues big big policy challenges we need to merge a need to be part of the other politic stream people the populace needs to accept and and and are on board for the for this big major issue and so when when all three of these streams merge major policy takes place okay so we got we've got three streams and so the key the key the key aspect of Kingdon theory is this idea of merging 3 to 3 streams need to merge yet his metaphor is independent streams ok three streams and they're moving independently of each other and and when when they're our key policy is developed all three streams will merge and and policy will big law will be initiated ok and and and so again this is where there's awareness of the problem there is a solution that is proposed and then most importantly the public is willing and supportive of addressing this problem when that takes place then the major policy can't can't take place the whole the whole idea behind kingdon is really the idea of establishing priorities and so when the 3 streams merge there there's a the an action item is placed on the on the Institute institutional agenda and then then the policy process begins in in in in earnest to two things often will help merge those those three streams one of them is is a defining or dramatic event something that would take place and for most of my students I think when I talk about a defining event we talked about nine eleven that took that took place in America where the where the Twin Towers will or attack that that's a defining event from that then major policy resulted my family in my folks generation and maybe have been Pearl Harbor or something like that or or maybe the the collapse of the Soviet Union those are those would be defining events things that after that major major events take place that's one thing what one one factor that can merge these streams yeah the other factor is the role of an entrepreneur an entrepreneur so we've got either defining event or an entrepreneur yeah the policy entrepreneur is it is an interesting actor with within this process this is somebody who has the ability to demand public attention to actually bring in the public acceptance of an event talk about something and then may it help merge those Millstreet those three streams and elected officials or key examples presidents of countries and governors and and and mayors of course can't can can do they can bring these sort of things they can demand attention when they when they stand up and say something people listen okay elected officials are important in in but those aren't the only people that can do that there there can be major business leaders also can have can have an impact an example that I use that is in the Omaha the business leader the primary business leader is Warren Buffett okay like the third or fourth richest man in the world when he talked people listened okay and and and he and he can make things happen he's a policy entrepreneur he could he can pull things together and make things happen okay so we got we got this pulling together at that time and and kingdon bus is hard he mixes metaphors which is something we always were told never to do with when were writing so stream streams are merging in windows open for some reason okay so that's a mixed metaphor but but the idea is is that the the window is a good opportunity because the window can't stay open very long okay so there's only there's a time factor here when the streams merge together is we have to take action quickly because if we don't the the the forces of the streams will they will they what they will separate us so there's only a specific period of time and and and so policy needs to be initiated in in a in a timely manner so this is the the the basic outline of kingdon theory it's got a lot of opportunity in my opinion for for research by public administration scholars and here's here's a couple areas that I that I think and I've highlighted in italics that people that that are doing research and they're looking at the role of administrators in in terms of sets of actors administrators are actors actors in the policy process so understand if you accept that then Kingdom Kingdom's theory can be useful as a way to understand the role of administrators in the policy process another thing about about kingdon is that we can use it to forecast things I tell this too much to my public administration students if we're in or if we're tuned into our policy area and and we see these sort of forces taking place and we can see the possibility of emerging of the streams we as administrators then we can we can play a proactive role one of the things that I think that too many times public administrators are play a reactive role they wait to wait till something has to be done and then they do it okay and and if you look at look at Kingdom's Theory the way we can come forecast and anticipate and be proactive in terms of of looking how things are taking place and this is something that emphasize to my doctoral students and into MPA students as as practitioners the MPA students tend to focus on how can i how can I apply this to practice and then the doctoral students how can I apply this to research okay thank you kinga's model Kings model does both my area my particular area of interest is is this role of the activity that takes place within the policy stream and and I refer that as do others as a policy community okay and and so I've taken kingdoms kingdoms theory and focus on on the policy stream looking at particular the nature of the policy stream it's it's a it's a very interesting way to look at begin astray ssin so in essence in essence the policy stream is the policy communities and and this this is a form this is this is where people this is where sets of actors interact on on a regular basis policy experts insiders people who have a formal institutional role within within the the policy process like administrators okay they have their their your formal institutional insiders but also there are there are outsiders people that maybe don't have a formal role in the policy process but they but they have significant levels of expertise using me as an example at one time I was very active in economic development I worked for an economic development agency and I was an insider and I'm and I had a at a specific role in terms of implementing policy now I do not do that anymore but I but I have conducted a significant amount of research in economic development and so they will come to me and say professor Blair can you help us with some research and and I published research in economic development and and so I make a contribution as an actor and an economic development policy area as a technical expert as some who has has scientific knowledge so these policy communities are really interesting entities to study and I guess I would encourage you know any anybody that will listen to me as an audience doctoral students as they think about this as a way to study public administration as a way to look at public administration and public policy you think about it think about what's what's the primary role of public administrators I mean it's too implement public policy in an in an efficient and effective manner okay and and so we do we we we are involved in policy involves in a policy process and understanding how we can improve our own also process is something that that is very important so also within this framework and and and there's another another framework that I don't have time to get into it but this is one of the seven theoretical frameworks that I included in my class the advocacy coalition framework and this is the work of Paul Sabatier it's about 20 years old but but it's it's a very interesting way to look at policy and and and what he is as promoted and and encouraged people think about that within within the policy communities there are sets of actors or sit there there are sets of actors not just individual actors may be a policy entrepreneur can be an individual but most of the time there's sets of actors people who are working together in the policy area and and often they they they share a vision and they show they share of a an ethos this is the sort of things that we should be doing in in our policy area they they advocate a specific policy a solution and and so what happens in policy communities there's rarely just one advocacy coalition there's normally two three four different editor and do they agree not very often sometimes they will they will work together but often they are fighting for their own particular viewpoint and their and so it's it's a combative envira see a smile dinner it's very combative okay yeah exactly yeah good point yeah and so everybody doesn't agree there's their different perspectives and so so Savanti air is a advocacy coalition is a framework that I laid on top of kingdom's framework again one of those basic theoretical areas that we look at so looking at coalition but but it was interesting too is administrators administrators can be in an advocacy coalition that we we may try to be totally objective and independent and an example and that maybe not always the case when I was an administrator in with an economic development area I not only implemented programs but I really I was part of a group that advocated economic development so we advocate this is important there's always laws and discussion so we we advocated very very ways to look at economic development people who are working in a an environmental agency for instance my guess is if they're an environmental working environmental agency they're probably a member of a Green Party for instance okay so they they they're in this environment because they because they because they believe that so they're both an insider and and an outsider in terms of the policy process so okay something that I really don't have a whole lot of time to discuss but policy communities very they're there they're dynamic they're sets of factors that influence how they are how they are so they're structured in there and they're some structural factors I'll just talk I'll just talk about two structural factors that influence the shape and form of these and they're there they they vary over time I mean so when you think about a policy community in one point in time it's going to be of one form and then on another period of time as information as environmental issues change demographics change and number of factors that that in that influence the structure of these of these policy communities is going to change is important to administrators because I I think that an administrators need to have an understanding of the dynamics or the policy area that they're in I understand the policy community that they're in and we as a researchers can give them that kind of input in and advice okay to two basic structural factors one is consensus okay is there a broad level of agreement basically on the parameters of the policy issue do we agree okay is there and the other one is there is there a dominant paradigm is there a dominant is there a an advocacy coalition that has a dominant power in the policy area or is there some levels of disagreement okay and you think about that most of us would agree that public public education is important people should have could should have a quality education okay we're good we're going to agree that yeah that that's important it's important to to to society it's important that we have good housing people are going to agree with that we're going to agree that that there should be equal opportunities for everybody in terms of jobs and and so forth so we're going to agree on that so that so there's some consensus okay but where the complication comes is there's really going to be complete agreement of how we reach those goals okay that's and those are the sort of things that that determined the structural factors and so the level of agreement and the level of influence that a single advocacy Coalition may have with it within that framework this is this is a taxonomy I wish I had to put this together we've got we've got the the reference or of where it comes from and these four different types of policy communities are interesting to to examine this is this is one it's a very stable policy community we agree aware on how we should get there and and and policy is very developed it's what I would call a stable policy community first stable okay so I tell my students this is the pilot this is the policy community that you want to work in when you're in your late 50s and 60s life is easy we know where to go okay now where do you want to be when you're young and bright and energetic you don't want to be up there you want to be where though you want to be where the fun is you want to be where the interesting things are here were or either either either one of these either the leaderless I I could they call it leaderless I call it pluralistic multiple multiple advocacy coalition's are taking place and and this is and not anarchic but again multiple multiple viewpoints so the this this is what I this is what I would call a developing policy community one word we're just trying to figure out what what to do how to deal with that and then this is one where there still if it's a under development and then you really don't want to be in in in this policy community this is this is one where it's it's it's it's it's stuck you really can't seem to move forward we know we need to do something but but but but but the forces that are there are preventing us from moving forward okay so this I think this is really a good taxonomy to look at and then we could it in in my classes what what we do is we spend time discussing the various policy areas in each one of these categories and this helps this helps administrators I need to know what kind of work they're that they're in okay what do policy communities do they provide information they're evolved in in in in in in the form formulation policy expertise advocacy these are things that we as administrators are focused on we've already we already know that that the policy stream is is the same thing as as policy communities this approach is very much an actor base I I firmly believe over over over over my my years of working and observing and consoling that the policy is made by people people make policy and people interact to make policy it's not it's not government's it's not it's not institution its people it's a people to make things to make things happen so this is it's an actor based actor based approach and and and and policy communities are dynamic and ever-changing sort of entities okay well what does this mean to administrators and some of this is good and maybe some of us not so good elite policy specialists then are the people that have significant impact the technocrats okay those are the people and maybe there are some implications for democratic society in that and that we we need to be you know that we need to be concerned about there there's ethical dilemmas there's there's a right way and a wrong way to to do things and and people when they have significant administrators have significant levels of expertise in a policy area it can be abused they can abuse our power okay so we have to be we have to be careful and these sorts of things so there's there's lots of implications to policy looking at policy communities in terms in terms of researchers so these are these are some of the things here's here's what I've done here's the sort of they're the connection that I have made and and I've I guess in in in my resource experience is what I've really tried to do is is not only look not only like a policy communities but but also look at the implementation process and and another theoretical framework which which would be another time another theory another in fact I talked about this in the in the implementation and then in the implementation class of policy as well as policy tools the idea that there are a range of specific actions and delivery mechanisms that that administrators can design in order to implement policy in an effective and efficient manner so I've looked tried to look at the connection between policy communities and the relationship to the design of policy and in particular specific policy tools implications to PUC to public demonstration is such this these are the things that administrator should be aware of how could what I can use the right kind of tools for to make effective policy and the nature in the end and the availability of these policy tools is a function of the nature and structure of the community and as you for instance you would think that a very stable policy community their their their policy tools are already established that there was what they'll be doing is not a adopting or developing new policies but trying to find ways to make them more efficient or in an emerging policy area we're still trying to figure out the right kind of tools to use okay this is where young administrators young bright people need to be the creativity's that's the area they need to be in and then and then old older administrators like myself we need to be in this stable community okay life is easy okay life is easy a couple of the areas that I have studied too looking at that framework in in general I've looked at affordable housing development in particular entrepreneurs and how entrepreneurs were revolved in affordable housing development I've looked at tools in terms of looking at urban sprawl in terms of what kind of mechanisms and tools and in the policy communities evolved I've done I've done a work with some colleagues on rural transportation and we're looking at policy tools and and and collaborations that take place that also in terms of regional collaboration among among city managers and administrators to work together to find the right kind of tools that can emphasize collaboration talked about that yesterday economic development that I that I mentioned focus on the role of municipal administration in finding the right kind of tools and then lastly urban growth management or some of the some of the areas that I've worked on that I think that Maytals kind of reviews those frameworks and main adaptations to to my research so and in in my website I have a listing of the articles I've worked on and if it been interested I can look at the articles I've got the citations and and and I can give you a copy if you can't if you can't access that again that's on my website Velma Velma has as this presentation for folks and with that [Laughter]