hey y'all in case you missed it in class or just need a review we're gonna start going over the a p6 executive branches so before we get into the details of the AP executive branches or the a p6 executive branches just want to do some basics the executive branch their primary responsibility is to carry out the laws and the policies that were written by the legislative branch for the state and in many countries the executive is split into two distinct roles your executive is the head of state and then you have an executive that's the head of government okay that's like the UK where the head of the state is the queen and the head of the government is the prime minister in the US the head of state and the head of the government are the same person that would be the president in Russia the president is the head of state with very strong powers and the Prime Minister is actually the head of the government with subordinate powers meaning the Prime Minister is basically controlled by the president's office and we'll get into that and how that works in much more detail when we cover specifically the Russian executive branch so you have three scenarios you have an executive power that split between two different officials the Queen of England being the head of government or excuse me the head of state and the Prime Minister being the head of government or in the u.s. the power the executive resides within one person the president or in Russia we're basically the power of the executive resides in one person the president but the Prime Minister is seem to have very few limited ropes okay so specifically let's start talking about the UK the UK the Parliament wasn't always the most powerful part of government it was the king it was a monarchy an absolute monarchy where what the king said was the rule of law the way Parliament ended up becoming the most powerful or the center of government in the UK was during the English Civil War you probably remember this from world history too hopefully you remember it from world history too I see you have the English Civil War which was a war fought between the supporters of King Charles the first and the Parliament which they called them the Roundheads Parliament one that executed the king and Oliver Cromwell took over the country for a short time as part of the Parliament people were not happy with cromwell's rule get into that is for a euro class that is for a history class not necessarily to get into at this point so what ended up happening is Parliament brought King Charles the first son back into power and gave him the throne except the following King so the Kings that followed charles ii weren't very respectful and didn't really allow parliament have much power so that led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and this is where William and Mary decided that they were going to hand over power to the Parliament by signing the English Bill of Rights and it is called the Glorious Revolution because you had a monarchy that willingly handed over absolute power and and gave it to the parliamentary or the representatives of the people okay and that's why it's glorious is because it was bloodless and monarchs did absolute monarchs did what was right and what was necessary okay Parliament and its ministers continue to gain strength as the monarch lost its power through the kings that would follow and really what you see is the power of the Kings Prime Minister firmly established by the 18th century and ministers of King George George a second basically gave or invested more power and more power more power and more norms of running the government we're given to the Prime Minister as opposed to it being firmly in the hands of the king moral of story is that this is how the Queen became the figure head or the figurehead of state but with very little power so in this chart you have the primary system the crown is an executive but so was the Prime Minister but what makes the Prime Minister unique in comparison to the United States is that the Prime Minister is actually also a part of the legislative branch all right so the UK has three branches but three branches being an executive legislative and judicial it is Parliament parliamentary and that means the interactions between the bread the branches are very different from the presidential system because there isn't the existence of separation of powers the executive branch is a part of the legislative branch the Prime Minister and cabinet are actually leaders of the legislative or parliamentary system so separation of powers don't exist so in a this chart kind of explains what that would look like as far as representation by voters so in the presidential relationship voters elect the legislators okay your house of representatives members and you're calm you're up excuse me your Senators and your chief executive your president who is a part of the executive branch the legislative and executive are independent and supposedly co-equal because of our checks and balances the separation of powers so we select with the people in Congress we select the chief executive he appoints the people that help him out in the executive branch ie cabinet members directors and things of the sort it I didn't mean to go on in the parliamentary system in the parliamentary system voters get to vote for their one legislator that legislator goes on to that legislative branch goes on to determine who's gonna be the chief executive or prime minister based on which party has the majority of the seats in in this case the House of Commons okay so let's talk about the executives okay the cabinet the cabinet in the parliament is made up of the prime minister and the ministers who head all of the major bureaucratic agencies within the government so if you were to equate that to the u.s. that would be like our Department of State our Department of Defense Department of Health and Human Services they have departments in the UK as well and except those people are chosen by the majority party whichever party has a majority seats in the parliament the the cabinet is the center of policymaking in the British political system and the Prime Minister has the responsibility of really driving the agenda to match the decisions we're driving the decisions of the cabinet to match the agenda of the majority party so if the majority party is the Conservatives in the UK which it is at this moment in 2016 the Prime Minister's job is to make sure that all of the cabinet departments ministers decisions reflect the platform and agenda of the Conservative Party now your cabinet members do not get a separate vote on legislation but they publicly support the Prime Minister that's called collective responsibility they are collectively responsible for making the best possible policy for the entire country now the unity of the cabinet is very important for stability of government if the unity of the cabinet breaks down that's when you could end up having a vote of no-confidence and remember this is why party voting on party lines is very important in the UK Parliament so kind of close the loop the cabinet majority party leaders they are the heads of the different departments you can rewrite here the different cabinet departments in the UK their decisions need to match the Prime Minister's decisions right the Prime Minister is first among equals at the moment it's a she Teresa MAME she stands at the apex of the Unitarian government so apex means at the very tip the top the top of the pyramid of the national government or in the government that's located in London the Prime Minister is not selected by all of the people in the UK the only people that vote for the Prime Minister are the people who live in the district that the Prime Minister represents the Prime Minister is a regular MP okay speaks legitimately for all of the members of parliament the other power of the Prime Minister is to choose cabinet ministers and important sub ordinate post so just important post of the people that are going to run the government makes decisions in the cabinet with the counsel of the cabinet and campaigns for and represents the party and parliamentary election so definitely a party leader okay that is it for the UK executive