in pretty much every area of interest human beings love to put things into boxes they love to categorize and classify from artistic subjects such as music and literary genres to science including stars chemical elements and animals our planet's climate is no exception to this and one that first might think why is it necessary to put a label on weather patterns from one part of the globe to another knowing patterns of temperature and rainfall is important mostly for understanding how the earth can support population in their area through farming but general knowledge of this also impacts on other areas such as tourism and migration regardless humans will be humans and in the absence of any perceived application to such knowledge we'll still classify for the love of science or to improve understanding the primary classification of earth climate is known as the köppen-geiger system it has evolved over the past 150 years to define precisely the nature of weather patterns on every part of our planet each of these climate zones has been covered in detail in my previous series secrets of world climate in which I show real places in each climate zone and explain why the patterns of rainfall and temperature are the way they are in this new series I'll be picking up on aspects of global and local climate that transcend these zones case by case in what will be known as the climate case book first in this series is intended as a quick reference work summarizing each of the köppen zones so that in the episodes that follow anyone new to the subject can get a quick grasp of what on earth I'm talking about if you want to find a specific section I provided video bookmarks in the accompanying text overall the köppen-geiger system has five broad categories which describe a general pattern and roughly start at the equator and end at the pole these are always their capital first letter of the shorthand codes that every cop and climate zone has and are as follows a tropical the zones around the equator which are hot all year round and either have heavy rain all year round or during some parts of the year be dry subtropical or continental areas with very little rain year round sea temperate areas which have relatively mild temperature ranges year-round and occurring at the mid latitudes near the coasts d continental areas of high temperature ranges occurring usually deep within the northern continents experiencing cold or very cold winters e polar areas which are called all year-round occurring near or at the poles of our planet each of these broad categories is further subdivided to account for more precise differences in temperature or rainfall and these give us the full 2 or 3 digit köppen-geiger codes these codes at first might seem like they're just hieroglyphics but a quick look can reveal the logic on 80% of them in all the temperate and continental codes the second letter tells us when there is a dry season s means the dry season is in summer w the dry season is in winter and F for no dry season at all the third letter tells us how warm or hot it is with a being the hottest and D being the coldest so armed with this knowledge let's get straight into looking at each and every one of the köppen zones af the tropical rainforest also known as the equatorial climate or Selva which is Spanish for jungle occurring only within the tropics at low elevations the key defining characteristic of this climate is rain and hot temperatures all year round this produces the famous rainforest of the zone is named after and has the largest biodiversity on earth a.m. the tropical monsoon found also exclusively within the tropics this climbers own experiences heavy rain during part or most of the year but also has a relatively short dry or longer drier season due to the shifting directions of trade winds from land to sea and vice-versa aw tropical savanna close sibling of the tropical monsoon and covering a much larger area in the tropics here the dry season is either completely dry or is dry over a longer period both the Savannah and the monsoon have a mix of woodland and grassland depending upon the amount of rain and local topography both support enormous populations and many large cities due to the combination of heat and rainfall without the human health issues of the rainforests BWH hot desert lying on the border of the tropics these areas experience very little rain and searing summer temperatures which hold the records for the highest on earth little or no vegetation exists here with only bare rock and sand as landscape bsh hot semi-arid lying next to hot deserts these areas have a little more rain to support scrub light vegetation but are still marginal in terms of sustainable human settlement bwk cool desert lying deep within the continents far from the ocean or on the leeward side of mountains sheltering them from moist winds these areas are as parched and desolate as the hot deserts but experienced winter temperatures that often fall below freezing point bsk cool semi-arid like the cool deserts only with more rain but not enough to be classified as temperate or continental like their hot semi-arid counterparts they support shrub like vegetation or hardy grasses CFA humid subtropical lying at a similar latitude to hot deserts these areas are on the eastern fringes of the continents however and are next to warm oceans that bring in plenty of moisture they experience tropical summers but cool winters and rain all year around they are amongst the most important areas of human civilization housing enormous populations and many great world cities typical natural vegetation ranges from the forest to swamp and grassland but much of these areas have been given over to farming c-w a sub tropical monsoon a sibling of a humid subtropical and found mainly in Asia at the same latitudes this varies only in that it has a winter dry season instead of the rain all year round due to the presence of the Asian monsoon CSA hot-summer mediterranean lying just above the hot deserts in latitude and always on the western fringes of continents these areas experience the hot and dry conditions of deserts and summer but significant rain from oceanic westerly winds in winter natural vegetation is limited by the desert light conditions of summer and is typically shrub like CSB warm summer mediterranean always lying above their CSA siblings on the continental western coasts these areas have warm dry summers instead of hot and usually even heavier rainfall in winter with less harsh summers natural vegetation is usually in the form of coniferous forests including the redwoods and sequoias of California the tallest in the world CWB subtropical highland occurring in tropical latitudes the heat of the rainforest in Savannah is reduced significantly through being a high-altitude the result is year-round mild temperatures with a pronounced dry season found mainly in Latin America East Africa and the foothills of the Himalayas natural vegetation is a mix of forest and grassland cfb oceanic and subtropical island one of the more confusing Coppin codes due to an accident of nature creating very similar conditions for completely different reasons small upland areas near the equator such as in Colombia and Ecuador have this mild year-round climber which also experiences year-round rain but over much larger areas in the mid-latitudes this climate exists next to western coasts where prevailing westerlies moderate temperatures year-round such that warm summers and cool winters are the norm in both cases limited seasonal temperature range and year-round rain are its defining hallmark natural vegetation is mixed woodland but these areas are heavily farmed CFC subpolar oceanic lying in certain areas higher in latitude or elevation to the oceanic these areas still have mild winters but cool summers dfa and DF be the first of the six continental climates occurring only within the great land masses of the northern continents all these climates experience high temperature ranges between summer and winter and all have cold winters routinely falling below freezing these first two experienced rain year round with DFA experiencing hot summers and DFB experience in somewhat cooler but still warm summers and are the most prevalent occurring across wide continental areas natural vegetation is usually in the form of grassland but these areas are heavily farmed DW a and DW be the same as DFA and EF V except that there is little to no rain during the winter these occur exclusively in eastern Asia due to the influence of the Asian monsoon d sa and D s be the same as the other continental climates except that the summer is dry instead of the winter these areas are not common and usually occur in word from Mediterranean climate areas DFC and DF D the first of the six sub Arctic climates these areas lying to the north of and similar to the continental climates except winters are much much colder these two zones have rain or snow year-round like all the subarctic zones the vegetation is dominated by coniferous forest and by the Russian word taiga and farming is almost non-existent DWC and DWD these subarctic zones are identical to the first two except they have dry winters they occur only in eastern Siberia the SC and DSD these very rare subarctic zones are like the others except that the dry season occurs in summer ET tundra even further north and the subarctic the true Arctic has the treelist wastes of the tundra where summer temperatures are just too cold to support tree growth a situation compounded by the presence of permanently frozen soil just below the surface known as permafrost only Hardy grasses and shrubs survive here Tundra also occurs in comparatively small alpine areas and also the straits of magellan between South America and Antarctica EF ice cap below freezing point all year round these areas produce ice sheets several kilometers thick and are confined to Greenland and Antarctica nothing can grow a nice harshest of conditions so that was your rapid-fire summary of the köppen climate zones of Earth I hope you found it useful in introduction to this system or to link the various zones together into a general pattern for understanding if you enjoyed this and other videos of mine please click the subscribe button so you don't miss feature episodes and don't forget to like and share and let me know your thoughts in the comments I'll see you in the next of the climate case book series