ah Marie can we actually say that no why darling you know that this video will be a painless guide to the branches of government absolutely it's really a very interesting subject how you were a good student but when I was in school and you were just learning to walk upright all right funny to me learning about the executive branch the legislative branch and the judicial branch of government seemed like torture actually worse required torture maybe you didn't really pay close attention Harlan no no I was a bit distracted I remember I think her name was Leslie wasn't it actually I was very busy with football and I never had any trouble remembering your sports game plan did you well no let's look at the branches of the US government like one big game plan only for the whole country so make sense least of me but so the teams would be the executive branch the judicial branch in the legislative branch and then the players would be the president Supreme Court justices and Congress men and women would be the Constitution in a way yes and by the way at times change the rules can change through amendments or additions to the Constitution stuff so even you are never too old to learn something well today we're going to talk about the presidency how and why the office was created and just what powers the executive branch prevented but first we'll dig down deep to see how the seeds of democracy sprouted into the strong roots of government and then branched out to the kyln don't even start with the tree analogy sorry you were saying well in a nutshell that sounds suspiciously like a tree analogy please sometimes you can't see the forest for the bats to stop barking at me I shall remain silent and well grounded while you give us the dirt first we have to mention the most important players in our system of government oh really ah we the people love it when you sound so it's directly literate Marie that phrase before somewhere well I certainly hope so those three words are vitally important to understanding our entire system of government Harlan they're the first three words to the preamble of our Constitution unlike other countries we the citizens of the United States granted our government and its leaders the privilege of governing us for our common good but and this is very important we the people are the ultimate authority oh yeah no kings queens or dictators for us got it so the framers of the Constitution designed the government with a system of checks and balances built in so that no one branch of the government that we established could become too powerful so the branches operate sort of like referees for each other oh you could say that just did I hate to admit it but I I am interested in how this song came to be well back in 1788 our constitution went into effect creating the federal government a period I know you remember then in 1789 George Washington was elected our first president no question yeah why is it called a federal government why not the Acme government or how about laws or us you know that is a good question I'm stunned a central federal system of government shares its power and responsibilities with the individual state so that's why a state like say Delaware doesn't print its own money or decide to declare war on New Zealand right you won't be any Delaware dimes or the first state flotilla but at the same time the state's Reserve's many powers for themselves like operating schools setting local laws collecting tack at that no comment now at the Constitutional Convention held in beautiful Beverly Hills held in Philadelphia now as I was saying at the Constitutional Convention the individual colonies were understandably very concerned about creating too strong a central government naturally they just finished a war over the tyrannical rule of England so to protect and preserve the states right but at the same time establish an effective national government a federal system was designed in which the three main functions of government would be held by three separate branches the legislative branch or Congress was empowered to make laws the president through the offices of the executive branch was charged with assuring that the laws were faithfully executed and the judicial branch or the Supreme Court was established to interpret the laws as they apply to the Constitution their powers were clearly defined and limited at the Constitutional Convention and that provided the system of checks and balances that you mentioned wow you were actually listening don't sound so surprised you're right though for example while the president is our commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces only Congress can declare war check Congress is the legislative branch right right and the Supreme Court can check Congress and the president by declaring laws unconstitutional check and since the Senate approves nominees to the Supreme Court that provides the legislative branch of check of the judicial branch checkmate just kidding and while Congress is empowered to create laws the president can veto any law passed by Congress the Congress can override that veto with a two-thirds majority vote you know Harlan they can even impeach the president how do they do that well the House of Representatives must vote on charges brought against the president these are called the articles of impeachment in order for the president to be impeached a majority of Representatives must vote in favor of these articles man out he goes no not necessarily if the president is impeached a trial is sent inductive in the Senate with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as judge and the Senators as jurors a two-thirds majority of all senators must vote to convict the president in order to remove him from office you're right Murray I remember when William Jefferson Clinton was impeached by the house in 1998 but not convicted by the Senate the following year he has any president actually been impeached and removed well in 1868 impeachment proceedings were begun against President Andrew Johnson who succeeded Abraham Lincoln after his assassination but the Senate failed by only one vote to convict him and in 1974 the House Judiciary Committee approved articles of impeachment against Richard M Nixon however he resigned before the full house could consider them written I shall resign the presidency effective at noon tomorrow vice president for will be sworn in as president at that hour in this office Wow that's serious stuff so the checks and balances system early seems to work Murray the convention guys did good well they did well so well in fact that the government laid out by our Constitution is the oldest continually in use today and Harlan most people prefer to call them the framers of the Constitution and at the convention guys well of course there was a lot of debate over what type of executive branch to establish at the convention and how much power to grant the president some favored a strong chief executive others favored a weak figurehead president some wanted Congress to elect the President and one delegate to the Constitutional Convention even proposed that we import a king from some other country to govern your to turn milk but when all was said and done article 2 section 1 of the Constitution simply said the executive power shall be vested in the President of the United States of America well now wait a minute does the Constitution to find just what this get the power that the president has did yes although people do disagree from time to time over the interpretation of those powers well here's a good example of the president's power charlie let's look at article two section two the Constitution says the president would be commander-in-chief of the Army Navy and militia of the several states when Congress called them into service and the president was granted the power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States and the president has the power to conduct Foreign Affairs make treaties and two-point ambassadors with the consent of the Senate one of the two parts of the legislative branch of government the old checks balances I said it first well actually John Adams our second president said it first and with the consent of the Senate the president has the power to appoint other executive officials as well as justices of the Supreme Court the third branch as I recall the judicial branch very good the president is also expected to play a role in the legislative process by recommending laws and program submitting an annual budget and giving Congress information on the State of the Union you know it seems to me Mareva the most important job of the president is right here in the oath of office I do solemnly swear and I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United and will to the best of my ability preserve protect and defend the Constitution of the United States so help me God so help me God I couldn't agree more Harlan you know our first president George Washington at his swearing-in added the phrase so help me God spontaneously to his oath and every president since has said it no in all seriousness I guess that shows just how big and difficult a job it is to be the chief executive right and there are so many other duties and responsibilities of the executive that although not specifically spelled out by the Constitution have become parts of the president's job for openers he appoints and manages his cabinet his group of advisers since 1939 the president has been assisted by an organization called the Executive Office of the President to deal with all of this Oh being president is a huge responsibility but I'm thinking I could handle it so where do I apply well you don't apply Harlan you're elected so every citizen of the u.s. at least 18 years of age and registered to vote stops by their local neighborhood polling place casts their ballot then they cut him up in the winner me moves into the White House where I get to meet ambassadors and famous people and the pay's pretty good too the actual election of the president is more complicated than that Harlan in fact most people find this part a little difficult so try just want to pay attention I promise two words Electoral College never heard of a football team you know but the Electoral College actually both an elect the president each state legislature appoints as many members at the total of its representatives and Senators in Congress to the electoral college they're called electoral delegate during a presidential election the delegates pledged their votes to the candidate who wins the state's popular vote whichever candidate gets the most electoral votes nationwide wins even if it isn't win the popular vote I like my method better well at the time the Constitution was written there were no computers loading machines or even telephones so generally felt that the electoral college was instituted because the mechanics of counting actual individual vote would take too long and cost too much in fairness the college usually reflects the popular vote No maybe we should modernize the system didn't you mention the Constitution can be changed through amendments right and in fact President Jimmy Carter in 1979 strongly recommended to the Senate an amendment to abolish the electoral college but it didn't receive enough votes in the future who knows okay so I want to be President that what other job qualifications are there oh and how long can I keep the job well longer than any other job you've had I'm sure you must be a native-born citizen of the United States 35 years of age and have lived in the United States for at least 14 years your term of office is four years oh no hang on I do such a great job I'm sure the people would want to reelect me must be nice to live in a fantasy world but if in the unlikely event you were reelected you can serve two terms cuz that's what it says in the old rulebook well not really the Constitution didn't originally set a limit on the number of times you could serve as President George Washington set the example though by not seeking a third term well how can that be you know my mom told me she voted for Franklin Roosevelt four times and I'm sure she'll be thrilled you told the world her secret vault' sorry mom remember amendments well in 1951 the 22nd amendment to the Constitution was ratified limiting the terms of the office of President to – any easier getting elected vice president and by the way what does the vice president do anyway same rule different job description and it's not an easy job either I was afraid of that former vice president Hubert Humphrey once said the president has only 190 million boxes but the vice president has 190 million and one however it is true that the only official duty of the vice president is to preside over the Senate so you have to show up yes Harlan the vice president has to show up even though he doesn't take part in the Senate's deliberations except in the case of an impeachment vote he does cast the deciding vote in the case of the tie you have to wear a tie oh you are hopeless in recent times beginning with President Harry Truman the vice president has been a member of the National Security Council and most presidents actively seek to involve their vice presidents and their administration's the Constitution states that the vice president becomes president in the event of the president's death and the 25th amendment which was adopted in 1967 provides for the vice president to act as president should the president be temporarily incapable of performing his duty well let's talk about the president and vice president and the White House I'm starting to get that strange urge I always trap well here we are bigots white and as a taxpayer it's mine a wonderful it's home didn't let me use the bathroom wow you think those guys work for the president yes they work for the president Oh doggies I got this great souvenir I got what you get Oh keep it only you could turn a fun-filled field trip into a learning experience huh well at least I can safely say George Washington slept here no no no no no Martha and George Washington had to put up with a cramped rented house in New York City New York City John and Abigail Adams our second president and his wife moved here in November 1800 and by the way at the time everybody called it the presidential palace I like the White House 12 fireplaces lots of bathrooms great front lawn boy it must take the president all day Saturday just mowing it or is that the vice president's job shoot we're almost out of time oh that was fun son glad to be back and I'm ready reviews enjoy what is it oh boy ready I promise this won't hurt a bit the executive branch of the president chosen by the Electoral College who serves for a maximum of two four-year terms charged with enforcing all federal laws and supervising administrative agencies that person must be native born at least 35 years old and a resident of the United States for 14 years the president can grant reprieves and pardons and negotiate treaties with foreign governments with the two-thirds agreement from the Senate he is also commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces keeps Congress informed of the need for new legislation and on the State of the Union he nominates judges to the Supreme Court with the approval of the Senate and when Congress passes laws the president can veto them unless the Congress overrides him with a two-thirds vote in both houses Wow painless and fast thank you and I think pretty interesting as well particularly the field trip I love Washington DC I can't wait to go back let's take a look at this Murray see if you turn it over it snows on why she's in Harlan look at the picture of Mark on Washington they call this lady Washington so that's where the turn the first lady Harlen yeah okay we got a quiz okay number one the executive branch is made up of the president and his or her cabinet a true B false number two the President of the United States cannot be removed from office a true default three the president is elected to a six-year term of office is that a true or B false for the president is elected when he receives a majority of the popular vote a true B false number five the president has the power to nominate Supreme Court justices a true B false stick according to the current law the presidential succession act of 1947 which of the officers follows the president in the line of presidential succession a the Speaker of the House be the Majority Whip see the Secretary of State or D the vice president seven according to the Constitution which of the following qualifications is not needed to become president a be at least 35 years of age B be a naturalized citizen B live in the United States for 14 years D be a male question number 8 when the president refuses to sign a bill that is passed by Congress this is called a a veto e an executive order C executive privilege D impeachment number 9 the number of electoral college votes that each state receives is determined by a the number of senators from each state B the number of seats each state has in Congress see the executive branch D the Bill of right number 10 which of the following positions are appointed by the president then you can choose more than one a cabinet members be Speaker of the House C national security council D teenagers