one of the things that’s quite interesting about the gulag camps and this is something that’s very relevant to understanding of modern Russia is that so ordinary criminals were put into the camps and so we’re political prisoners prisoners but the ordinary criminals is so those would be rapists and murderers let’s say as well as thieves who were engaged in theft as an occupation those were regarded by the Soviets as socially friendly element and the reason for that was that they assumed that the reason that these people had turned to crime was because the applause of the oppressive nature of the previous Czarist / capitalist system and that the only reason that these criminals existed was because they had been oppressed they were oppressed victims of that system and so one of the convenient consequences of that absolutely insane doctrine was that the Soviets put the ordinary criminals in charge of the camps and these were very very seriously bad people and so you can imagine the way that they treated the political prisoners who were regarded as socially hostile ailments sometimes because of their own hypothetically traitorous acts but more often merely as a consequence of their racial or ethnic identity or the fact that they were related by birth to say people who had been successful under the previous system so who had any any association with nobility or any association with what we’re known as the kulaks who were the only successful class of former peasants in the Soviet Union because they were regarded as privileged you may have heard that word more recently they were regarded as privileged and therefore as enemies of the state and it didn’t matter if it was your father or your grandfather or your great-grandfather who happened to be privileged but the mere fact that you were a member of that group with sufficient reason to put you into a camp and we’re talking hundreds of thousands or perhaps millions of people who underwent that fate and so the idea in the Soviet Union was just because you were the member of a class even as a consequence of your familial association you were immediately sufficiently guilty to be put into a camp and punished in the end the terms for the camps were often 10 years 15 years long and if you were very fortunate you’ve got to have two or three of those so the the Soviets really instant implemented end and affected the idea of class and ethnicity based guilt it’s a very bad road to walk down and it’s something that we’re very much engaged in at the moment because there’s discussion everywhere in North America now about the idea of well race predicated guilt for example an ethnic predicated guilt and it’s a very bad idea to classify an entire group of people as guilty of anything based on their group membership so these these sorts of things are things we haven’t yet learned and certainly should have