hi everyone here's some extra information for the interest group and political party tests starting with interest groups how do they influence elections the influence elections by giving campaign contributions through political action committees they endorse candidates and encourage their membership to vote for certain candidates they make issue ads produce issue ads ads that promote the candidate and specifically highlight the issues that that interest group is concerned with and why that candidate supports it they also provide information on issues and the candidates to their membership alright next let's talk about how interest groups use something called issue networks or iron triangles they participate in issue networks by providing money information and resources in hopes of obtaining political support from Congress and the bureaucracy or the White House they also use amicus briefs to inform the courts in hopes of influencing court reasoning or court decisions there are also are some limits on interest group influence and I'm now right here media can act as a gatekeeper of information or a watchdog over interest groups they can limit what they cover about an interest group so you may want media attention but you may not get it where you might get negative media attention another influence that can limit interest groups is pluralism pluralism means there are many interest groups competing with each other for influence and because of this competition some groups can be limited other groups might be more successful interest groups use various techniques to achieve their goals what Mike they use you ask well they might use litigation lawsuits they do this when rights issues are involved and if the issue doesn't a lot of support from the public and a lot of influence over lawmakers making policy for that issue they might go around Congress and use the courts especially civil rights and environmental groups use litigation they could also use campaign contributions to achieve their goals money talks and it certainly does make a difference when they can donate money to a candidate to buy their loyalty or their support they can gain access to government so the groups that have financial resources have an easy way of achieving their goals also another technique is grassroots lobbying not lobbying like hiring a lobbyist but mobilizing their membership they may not have a lot of money so they go out and get their support of their group gained lots of popular support they influence public opinion but they get people involved actively and that active involvement in large numbers gets the attention of the decision-makers who then would be prone to passing policy to help the group now there are some organizations interest groups that use different strategies and techniques for example if you are the American Medical Association you might use campaign contributions because you have a lot a lot of money to contribute if you're the Sierra Club you might use litigation because you're an environmental group or you might organize your grassroots membership to protest to gather attention because of large numbers of membership if you're the NRA probably use campaign contributions if you're the n-double-a-cp you might use litigation because you are a civil rights group or the grassroots lobbying inter groups have a fundamental goal what is that fundamental goal to influence public policy to influence government to change laws what's a fundamental goal of political parties to elect people to office and control government how do interest groups and political parties support each other interest groups support political parties with monetary contributions through political action committees organizing their people to get out the vote providing information to political parties spending money on advertising campaigns to support a candidate in a political party all in hopes of in return gaining access and influence to policymakers having like-minded people in office who will advocate for their group and getting legislation passed that will help the interest group here's some more old stuff that will be on the test political socialization is the way an individual acquires his or her political orientations mass media is considered to be the new parent in the socialization process as we get older once political orientation grows firmer public opinion polls are important because policymakers can keep in touch with changing opinions on the issues political ideology is a set of values and beliefs about public policy liberal ideology is strong they support a strong government that sets policies to promote equality random samples are most important for getting an accurate measure of public opinion in a survey the most common form of political participation in the United States is voting in presidential elections the next statement up there the influence of American political parties has not been weakened in the US because most states use primaries to select candidates that does not weak in political parties all right youth and political socialization most countries socialize their use to support the form of government that they live under so in the United States we socialize our youth to support democracy excuse me concept of democracy so that they'll grow up to be supportive citizens uh let's see New Deal coalition this made the Republican Party the minority party after many many decades of being the majority party the Democrats group with membership of minorities immigrants jewish catholic working class who filled this party during the after the in the aftermath of the Great Depression television television is considered to be the most reliable source of information in the media all right the definition of politics this takes us way back in this semester politics is defined as who gets what when and how shot Snyder's definition of politics was conflict expansion linkage institutions we recall where things like the media interest groups voting political parties the National nominating conventions held by the two major parties occur once every four years John Locke believe the end of government was preservation of property and in recent years well since the 1960s support for the Democratic Party has declined the most among white Southerners okay I think oh one last thing classifications based on gender are in the middle of that pyramid remember at the bottom of the pyramid most reasonable would be discrimination based on age at the top most unreasonable discrimination are inherently suspect with discrimination based on race and in the middle is discrimination based on gender so it's between reasonable and inherently suspect discrimination based on gender all right hope this helps you guys good luck on the test